This is the French version of the British “five ball spadroon”, or as they were called in France “épée à l’anglaise” (English style sword). These became popular around the time of the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, which resulted in a short lived peace between France and England. French officers, especially among dragoons, adopted these swords as part of their dress uniforms to celebrate the event. Napoleon himself had one of these.
This particular spadroon is very typical of the type, with a reinforced guard and an ebony grip. It is otherwise identical to British patterns. The blade is pitted, the counter guard has been broken off, and the cross guard itself and the grip have seen a few repairs. Still, a great example of this unique and curious French type.